Review: How to Raise an Adult

Earlier this year a colleague sent me a link to the getting in podcast hosted by Julie Lythcott-Haims. I was so impressed by her refreshing attitude towards the college admissions process that came across heavily in the podcast that I was moved to purchase her book: “How to raise an adult – break free of the overparenting trap and prepare your kid for success”.

Now, it isn’t without irony that I read this book as a parent of a 15 month old girl, but I didn’t initially purchase this book to read as a parent. I bought it as a teacher and college counselor who works with 14-18 year olds and their parents, and one who wanted help to get inside the heads of some parents who at best can be described as helicopter parents and worst who can be described as tiger parents. That being said, reading the book was also helpful as a parent as I became aware of many unhealthy attitudes and thought patterns that have already taken hold in my mind as a parent – I kept thinking: “I do that already!”.

The central premise of the book is that many modern parents are over involved in their children’s lives and do far too much for them. This results in a learned helplessness in young people and a disempowerment of them resulting in an inability to solve life’s problems. Parents have to step back and allow their children to practice a task, fail safely and try again.

Many of the chapters contained examples that resonated with me in terms of the conversations that I have had with parents this year and some of what I read made me question some of the practices that take place in my own school, where we actively encourage parents to become heavily involved with their children’s education. Obviously parents need to be involved and some of this is very very healthy but there is a balance to be struck here and when a parents involvement begins to have detrimental effects on the self-efficacy of the child in question then a boundary has been crossed.

The book is divided into four parts: what we are doing now as parents; why we must stop overparenting; another way of parenting; and daring to parent differently.

There were many specific elements of the book that I particularly enjoyed. In her chapter on children who leave school without basic life skills, Julie provides a checklist of eights tasks that a eighteen year old must be able to do when they leave school:

  1. Be able to talk to strangers (e.g. teachers, landlords, HR managers, co workers etc)
  2. Be able to find their way around a new environment
  3. Be able to manage assignments, work load and deadlines
  4. Be able to contribute to the running of a household
  5. Be able to handle interpersonal problems
  6. Be able to cope with the ups and downs of competition, tough teachers, bosses
  7. Be able to earn and manage money
  8. Be able to take risks

I also liked here strategy for building skills in children:

  1. We do it for you.
  2. We do it with you.
  3. Then we watch you do it.
  4. Then you do it completely independently.

At school many colleagues use the question, “What is in the best interest of the student?” as a guide to situational problem solving, but I often wonder if often-times we sometimes think that the best interest means not letting the students fail or make mistakes.

In school’s we have the chance to design opportunities for students where they have to do things on their own and make a mess of it. Looking at the list above I can think of plenty of times when parents will step up to defend students or make excuses for them, or as a school we don’t design opportunities appropriately to help students to develop these skills.

I certainly feel that in secondary schooling we should be actively working to develop students self-efficacy and independence, and any action that prevents this is stunting the development of the future adult.

Perhaps our Wellbeing programs should also focus on parenting and the effects of overparenting on the development of our future adults. I worry that to some parents, a wellbeing program means that we smooth every graze and wipe away every tear on the metaphorical school playground and that if we don’t immediately step in to support a student in the way they want then we are seen to not be doing our job. Instead at times students need to have the opportunity to solve issues with teachers and other students on their own.

One of the ways to help older students is to do less for them. This doesn’t mean not supporting them – just not doing it for them.

I am tempted to leave the careers week I run unorganised and ask parents to support their children in their internship search but to not find the placement for them. Is there a case for just providing the opportunity and letting the students get on with it under their own steam? Obviously with support in terms of letter writing and C.V. construction from the school.

The book also provides some useful checklists on how to teach life skills age appropriately, tips for teaching children how to think independently, tips on talking to children of different ages as well as for developing a strong work ethic in children.

A well written and articulate book, with a sound argument that is enough to stimulate thinking in many teachers and parents about how they go about their work.

This book got me asking the following:

  • How does the parental involvement in the minutiae of school life impact on the practice of education in our school?
  • How do you successfully balance healthy parental interactions via technology when the school working day is still only eight hours long?
  • How can our schools wellbeing programme address the caging of students by helicopter parents?
  • What exactly is learning if it isn’t memorisation?
  • What is the difference between rigor and load when it comes to homework?
  • How do we generate useful open questions in classrooms and allow the time for real inquiry?
  • How can I help my students learn more with me doing less for them?
  • Is the fact that student don’t read widely or at all evidence that they are self-absorbed?
  • What is my personal purpose?
  • Why do I teach?

 

What I have learned about: EdTech part III (Screencasting)

Screencasting

Screencasting is a useful and versatile tool for all learners, both teachers and students. Teachers can use it to create task walkthroughs for students like the one I posted here. They can also use it to assess students thinking about concepts and then provide feedback by commenting on the screencast if students share it with them through youtube or some other channel.

Students benefit by creating a visual and auditory performance of a concept (as opposed to a written performance) which they can then critique either on their own when they come to review a topic or study it in more detail. Work can also be saved for future classes to view, critique and improve.

The drawbacks are that it takes a certain level of investment to get comfortable using. I have had students resist doing an activity because they didn’t like the sound of their own voice understandably. This means that gentle encouragement and coaching can draw out the process. In addition students need to be shown how to to this, what software to use and what websites to visit on top of the content that you are trying to help them engage with ultimately.

On this page I introduce readers to an online sketchpad that when combined with screencasting as shown on this page provides an excellent tool for student performances that get away from the pen and pencil and engage other senses in the learning process.

In the performances below, my grade 11 HL Biology students were asked to use sketchpad to describe the process of DNA replication while recording a screencast. I think that the results speak for themselves, and I think any teacher will see the benefit of having students submit work in this format:

Example No 1

Example No 2:

Example No 3:

What I learned about: EdTech part II (Mobile Tech)

Mobile Tech

Mobiles in the classroom? This can be a testy one and probably not appropriate for all classrooms. I currently work in a Bring Your Own Device School or BYOD campus, where students are allowed to bring any smartphone or tablet to class with them, although in Grade 9 upwards (Year 10 UK style) we insist on a laptop.

BYOD campuses bring their own challenges for the learning community but they certainly can bring benefits to classrooms, so long as the focus remains on the learning and not on the “ooohhh” factor of playing with new toys. The SAMR model (below) is a great starting point for launching your thinking about how to use EdTech in the classroom, although to reach the higher levels of the model does require a significant of investment of time for the teacher to be proficient enough with the technology to design appropriate learning engagements. Schools that aim to get in involved with tech in the classroom should pay head to this training need for teachers.

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As a science teacher some of the areas that I have experimented with in using Mobile tech is to ask students to create “how to videos”. Mostly these would be created on iPhones or iPads using iMovie but there are other devices and software available. For example, carrying out foodtests and learning about the diagnostic tests for starch and simple sugars etc is a normal part of a middle school science program. The learning here underpins learning of deeper concepts further up the school, for example using colourimetery to test for the concentration of sugars. In a traditional classroom, science teachers would teach the theory before a class would carry out the tests in a practical lab to get experience of actually carrying out the tests. By adding in the task of making a “how to video” students would be asked to carry out the task as usual but to use their phones to record the tests and at the end put together a short video that demonstrates each of the tests in action. What I like about this is that it causes students to reinforce the learning by applying the theory in a new context; not only in the practical but in the further explanation of the method via the video. Students are effectively being asked to visually write a method, which they can share with friends, or save for revision time. When these videos are uploaded to Youtube it becomes very easy as a teacher to assess and provide feedback on the learning via the comments section.

I include some videos of this below that show the student work. The results do vary.

Mobiles can also be used for higher order learning and not simply the description of methodology but also the explanation of concepts. I have only tried this once with a grade 11 (Year 12 or L6th).

In these tasks students were asked to demonstrate their understanding of a concept by creating a short video about it. Students record a sequence of steps using molymods or playdoh to illustrate an idea. Their lecture is therefore recorded and their thinking is made audible and visible. Peers and teachers are able to review this thinking to give feedback to the student. Tasks can be individual or in small groups, as were done in the creation of this video explaining hydrolysis and condensation reactions.

The task can be scaled up into whole groups as in this explanation of transcription by my current grade 11 HL students. Here I asked students to study the material prior to class. When they came to class I asked each of them to write a model answer to a question about transcription. I then snowballed the students into a group who were now asked to write a script for an animation of transcription. Finally the students were asked to animate their script using play-doh and to record this with one of the students phone. The result can be viewed here:

One of the things that I like about this approach is that it is multi-sensory. Students are not confined to simply writing and reading, activity that is divorced from relying on all our senses to learn. Students can craft a model with their hands, while using their voices and sense of hearing to articulate their thinking and critique the work of each other.

This type of activity can be taken even further and can across classrooms. It can ultimately provided students with their own revision tool, if the explanation is correct or it can be used for further rounds of critique until it is perfected. Students in the same class or in future classes can critique the work to spot and correct any mistakes in the explanation, all the while students are getting familiar with and practice at using the scientific terminology.

 

 

 

 

What I learned about: EdTech part I (Social Media)

Introduction

I left school in 2001. At the time my school had a computer suite and I believe that as a student I had an email address but I never used it. I got into email in a big way on my year out as my only means of communicating with family and friends while overseas, although I suppose I could have started a blog then. When I started university in 2003 we students were regularly advised to check our emails daily and this and DUO (Durham University Online) became two major technologies used in the delivery of the courses I studied.

I rejoined school as a teacher in 2008 and between then and now one of my internal fascinations and dialogues has been concerned with the sheer change and opportunity that technology has afforded schools; initially I was struck by the difference wrought by Skype and social media, between what I experienced at the very end of my schooling and what secondary students in a boarding school in 2008 were experiencing. Since then I have listened, intently, to the debate that has raged about teachers, schools and students and social media – should they, shouldn’t they?

That was the beginning, but it hasn’t just been social media and its opportunities and problems for the education community that has had my attention during my professional career to date. I now work in what can only be described as a “tech-saturated” school and while there are still things I am unsure of, embracing technology in my classroom meaningfully has allowed me facilitate learning in the last two years in a way that was unimaginable even 10 years ago.

I often wonder if anyone who doesn’t work in schools and left school prior to 2000 can possibly have the faintest idea about what classrooms look like now. I wonder what scenarios my parents, who were in school in the 1950s and 60s, must imagine when they think of me as a teacher. The same goes for my (much) older siblings.

In a series of three posts I want to distill the experiences I have had with a variety of different educational technologies to condense my thinking of different areas of what is a vast topic for schools. This post will look at social media, the next with mobile technology in the classroom and the final will look at screencasting.

I expect that I will use future posts to expand on elements in all of these posts.

Social Media

I have been a member of Facebook since 2006. When I joined I needed to use my university alumni email address as at the time you had to be a member of certain universities to join.  I am no stranger to the idea of social media then, but I have been very reluctant to bring it into the classroom. Doing so certainly presents challenges; exposing your personal profile to students so that they and parents know where to find you has been a perennial concern particularly if, like me, your early days on the platform were littered with tags in photos from days at university you would rather not have a grade 9 student poke around through. There are ways around this, particularly if spending hours tinkering around with your privacy settings is the way you like to spend a Friday night (are privacy settings always that private?) so the problem is not insurmountable. However, personally, I think I have been reluctant to use social media because I felt the clue was in the name. “Social” is not the same as professional.

All that said I have experimented with social media in my classroom. Initially this was with Facebook but I have moved on from this platform now and would not use it in my classroom again as I decided last year to change my name and to keep this platform specifically for non-professional life. Because of this I branched out to Twitter and LinkedIn as my professional-social media outlets and it is Twitter that I am now actively considering ways to utilize it in my teaching. Here are some of my thoughts about social media in the classroom, distiled:

Facebook can be used to create groups which can be used like classes or clubs, groupings of students based on certain attributes. Students can be invited to join these groups and this can be a great way to set assignments, share news stories or other activities with them. Student responses can be assessed and the interaction can be really positive. Also there is no need to add students as friends so if your privacy settings are secure then they won’t be able to sneak a peek at those pictures of you down the pub.

Clearly there are advantages to using Facebook in the classroom. If students are engaged and motivated it becomes very easy for them to read, and re-read shared stories or each others work. Facebook can also be used to set up dialogues, quite a interesting one from the point of view as a science teacher. Part of what I want my students to understand is the context that scientific discoveries were made in. If you can get that then you appreciate the wonder even more. Having students write up a facebook dialogue between two competing scientists (for example a dialogue between Franklin, Crick and Watson to name one) could help bring the topic to life. I haven’t actually done this but I have thought about it.

For me, because I joined Facebook as a student when social media was a new thing, I think its best for me to keep the families and students away from that account and so I move to twitter.

Twitter can be handy too. Creating a hashtag for your class and asking students to tweet short reflections, or to upload photos from class to twitter using that hashtag and/or your twitter handle, can create online repository of learning artefacts that track the learning journey in that classroom. These materials from the group can easily be found again when it comes to revision time just by searching for the handle.

I like twitter. It is open and you know how open it is. The privacy settings are simple and to be honest if you want privacy don’t use it. It is made for public engagement. The first thing that interested me was the thought that my students could tweet a well know or celeb in the science world. Someone like @AdamRutherford or@DrAliceRoberts who they see on the TV and in class as well as hear on the podcasts I play them. People like this could be contacted as expert advice for a school project although there is no guarantee they will reply.

Twitter can also be used to create dialogues between students as themselves or as actors, concepts can be explained in real time and the thinking is then recorded easily and interactively for assessment.

It is really important to divide private and professional social media; it is healthy to keep work in work and home life at home and the same goes online. Therefore I now only use Twitter for personal professional reasons, whereas Facebook I now keep private. It is also very important that the focus remains on learning not on using the technology.

Learning Theory & Educational Neuroscience

I wrote this article in February 2015 as part of my PGCE Top-Up course at the University of Northampton. This is a course aimed at teachers who already have completed initial teacher training through the graduate training programme and gained QTS, but want to add on the university PGCE to this qualification.

Why publish it here? I have found that my own interests within Biology have developed hugely since I started teaching, taking me to academic areas that I never studied in my original Zoology degree. This is partly through trying to keep abreast with a subject whose post-16 content has changed and continues to change dramatically year on year and also partly through my own genuine interest in the subject. The brain and behaviour has been one of these areas.

As teachers we have a natural interest in how the mind works and how individuals learn. In one (very loose) sense teachers are Biologists because of this interest; we want to understand the mind of this species of hominid and how it develops.

My interest in educational neuroscience represents for me a cross over of these spheres of interest in my own professional life – biological science, specifically neuroscience and education.

Thoughts gratefully received.

Introduction

On 19th October 1964 a paper was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. In it the author, Peter Higgs, hypothesised about the existence of a fundamental particle that was responsible for giving mass to other fundamental particles: the so-called Higgs Boson (Higgs, 1964). 47 years, 8 months and 15 days later, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, CERN, confirmed that experimental physicists working at the facility had demonstrated the existence of the particle (CERN, 2015).

This story of discovery illustrates the wonderful interplay in science between scientific theory and scientific fact. The Higgs theory was just one of several competing models which had been proposed over 4 decades to explain how fundamental particles may interact. With the discovery of the Higgs Boson, the Higgs theory, with some modification, was proved to be the correct explanation.

In a similar way neuroscientific studies of the brain and its functioning could be used to constrain and validate psychological theories of learning. Educational practice uses psychological theories, developed over the past century or so, what if we attained physical evidence to illuminate which ones should be developed and which ones could be discarded?

Modern educational theory has diversified hugely with specialist areas devoted to studying different learning contexts e.g. classroom, outdoor, experiential, life-long, as well as at different developmental stages e.g. early years, school-age, university and adult (For a review see Illeris, 2009). It is only relatively recently that educational researchers have begun to try to forge links between education theory and neuroscience (Geake, 2009), while some have questioned the basic ability of these two fields to be bridged (Bruer, 1997).

I will review the evidence that educational neuroscience is yielding, and review the arguments for and against use of neuroscience in the context of education. Neuroscience still has much to learn about the brain but we already have an understanding that can inform educational practice on a variety of levels. I will begin by describing the development of psychological theories of learning before moving on to examine the contribution that modern neuroscientific or brain based theories of learning may yet make towards developing our understanding of how humans learn.

Learning Theory

Humankind’s interest in learning and teaching could be said to go right back to the early days of our pre-history when, as a new species, we had to invent new ways to respond to a changing environment. Indeed learning is without doubt a very, but not solely, human trait; it is essentially what has allowed us to adapt to every environment on the planet.

Modern attempts to explain how humans learn have their roots in the psychological theories of the late 19th Century with the advent of cognitive psychology, behavioural science and ethology (Pritchard, 2009).

In the 20th Century behaviourists, notably Skinner (1958), developing the work of Ivan Pavlov, focussed on innate behaviour in animals and discovered the mechanisms of conditioning and reinforcement. Behaviourist approaches to understanding learning and human development view learning as the acquisition of new behaviour (Prichard, 2009).

In contradiction to behaviourism, constructivism views learning as the result of mental construction i.e. new learning is added to pre-existing knowledge. Piaget (1954) and Vygotsky (1997) separately developed their own particular brands of constructivism which differed fundamentally about how learning is constructed: Piaget viewed learning as being cognitively constructed and that students acted as lone scientists who learn through discovery; Vygotsky viewed learning to be socially constructed, with the teacher (and other students) having a significant contribution to play in scaffolding the work and setting the challenge for their students (Pritchard, 2009).

The influence of these theories cannot be understated. Constructivism is the key idea in education, underpinning not only many modern theories of learning, but also curriculum models (like the International Baccalaureate, an inquiry-based curriculum model [IBO, 2015]) and classroom based pedagogical approaches. Today it is taken for granted that learning is constructed within the mind of the learner and therefore new learning builds upon prior learning and understanding. This is the overwhelming epistemological standpoint that underpins all of modern theories of learning (Samuels, 2009).

Neuroscience and Education

Much of the early research in neuroscience focused on the structure and function of neurons, the specialised cells that make up the brain and nervous system. These neurons, form connections (synapses) with each other. At these synapses individual neurons are able to generate or inhibit the “firing” of impulses within the other neurons that they are connected to. In this way neurons are assembled into neuronal groups or brain modules (Geake, 2009). It is these neuronal groups, their interconnectivity and how they may relate to pedagogical practice that is of interest in educational neuroscience.

An early neuroscientific model of learning, that is still robust today in terms of its explanatory power is that proposed by school-teacher turned neuroscientist Donald Hebb (1949). In Hebb’s model of learning it is the number of connections within the brain not the number of neurons that is important. He states that when a neuron stimulates or inhibits a signal in another neuron across a synapse, that synaptic connection is reinforced. Conversely when signals are not issued across a synapse very frequently, that junction between the two cells, is not preserved. Thus neurons that consistently communicate with each other have their synaptic connections maintained, while those that do not lose their connections.

Attempts to link the findings from neuroscientific research and formal educational practice date back to the 1980s (Bruer, 1997) and since that time, opinions of educational researchers have been divided on the usefulness of neuroscientific research in education (see Bruer, 1997, Geary 1998, Geake & Cooper, 2003, Goswami, 2004). However, recent writers are less pessimistic (Goswami, 2006, Varma et al., 2008, Samuels, 2009, Ansari et al., 2011, Howard-Jones et al., 2014,  Howard-Jones 2014, Schenk & Cruickshank, 2014) and the trend in published articles becomes more positive. Indeed, it is telling that in the last decade we have seen the formation of the International Mind, Brain and Education Society (IMBES) along with the Mind, Brain and Education Journal. The Societies aim is to “facilitate cross-cultural collaboration in biology, education and the cognitive and developmental sciences” (IMBES, 2015). In addition there have been two formal reviews of the field, first by the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD, 2008) and the second by the Royal Society (Royal Society, 2011). All of these developments suggest that the findings from neuroscience and education research are beginning to converge.

Many of the arguments questioning the usefulness of educational neuroscience have focussed either on the limitations of the methodologies employed in studying neuroscience or the extrapolations that education professionals (researchers, teachers, civil servants) have made about the results from neuroscientific studies resulting in the so-called “neuromyths”.

Bruer (1997) argues that neuroscience only has an explanatory power when viewed through cognitive psychology. He described the three fields of classroom instruction, cognitive psychology and neuroscience as being spanned by two bridges – one from instruction to cognitive psychology and a second from cognitive psychology to neuroscience and that only by contributing to our understanding of cognitive psychology could neuroscience hope to deepen our understanding of classroom learning. He describes using neuroscience to study learning as a bridge too far. His essay has been citied a great number of times and the arguments he makes are worthwhile to the classroom practitioner.

Bruer’s premise is that studying the mind is not necessarily informed by studying the brain. This argument is rebutted by Cruickshank & Schenck (2014) and Howard-Jones (2014) who argue that because the mind is created by the brain it must have biological correlates. The systems of processing in the mind must be reflected by systems in the brain. This is an idea that as a Biologist and Science Teacher I tend to agree with.

Bruer (1997) also describes at length the early work of neuroscience that was conducted on single neurons in rats, mice or monkeys. He demonstrates that much of the evidence from these studies has been extrapolated to humans and used to describe human neural development. He makes the valid argument that extrapolation from rats to humans is a large assumption. This extrapolation has formed the basis of many “neuromyths” – misconceptions about learner’s brains that have been adopted by the education community. These misconceptions tend to contain “nuggets” of truth which have been misunderstood or poorly applied (Howard-Jones 2014).

Goswami (2006), Geake (2009) and Howard-Jones (2014) provide excellent up to date considerations of the neuromyths that have been adopted by the education community. They cite the ideas that learners are left or right brained; brains are male or female; the existence of brain buttons under the ribs; that there are critical periods for learning; that brains process information from different senses independently and that there are, consequently, individual learning preferences, as examples of neuromyths.

The prevalence of neuromyths cited within the literature and used to support various philosophies and policies of education is used by Bruer (1997) as evidence that neuroscience cannot, and should not, influence education. It seems to me that this argument is to misunderstand and misappropriate the role of science in society. It is precisely because neuromyths abound that systematic research needs to be conducted and communicated clearly to stakeholders. The reports from the Royal Society (2011) and the OECD (2008) along with Geake (2009) and many other authors now highlight the need for initial teacher training that provides some training in general scientific and neuroscience specific methods, as well as making an argument that deeper collaboration between the education and neuroscience academic communities is necessary so that educators and neuroscientists are able to better spot and counter these myths with biological evidence. Educational neuroscience has great potential to become a transdisciplinary area of collaboration with ideas from both fields influencing the other.

Bruer (1997) also writes about the problems with interpreting data from neuroimaging studies as well as the use of neuroimaging technology to study educational problems. In the 1990’s there was a huge expansion in development of technologies used to study the brain. For a review of these methodologies see Geake (2009) but it is important to note that the maps produced by scans of the brain are averages and do not necessarily represent individual brains. At that time neuroimaging technologies had very little ability to ask questions about classroom practice due to their size and cost, however these limitations are dramatically decreasing (Royal Society, 2011, OECD, 2008) and studies that actively image the brain during specific classroom based tasks are beginning to be published.

The relationship between neuroscience and the psychological study of literacy and the acquisition of language in school children is the oldest and most robust (OECD, 2008) and researchers in the field now have a good understanding of the neurological correlates for language learning which can inform the choice and timing of pedagogical activities. There is a sensitive but not critical timing for learning a second language in the early years of education (Geake, 2009 & Royal Society, 2011).

Educational neuroscientific research into the neurological correlates for numeracy and mathematical ability is newer, although important evidence is already emerging about how the brain processes the different mathematical information and learns specific mathematical skills (Geake, 2009 & Royal Society, 2011).

Perhaps the most interesting and important questions that educational neuroscience is addressing are those concerned with learning difficulties. Educational neuroscience research has now provided a biological basis for the causes of Dyslexia. Diagnosis of the condition can be made based on neurological evidence and when twined with an improved understanding of how the brain processes word forms and sounds, neurological evidence can suggest effective methods of treatment. Similar work on Dyscalclia is already underway (Geake, 2009 & Royal Society, 2011).

Several authors (OECD, 2008, Geake, 2009, Royal Society, 2011) provide a thorough overview of the key findings from neuroscience generally and how they may apply to educational practice. A key general understanding is that no two human brains are the same. This may seem trite but even identical twins, which are the same genetically, show differences in their brain structure. This illustrates how much the brain is shaped by the environment it interacts with. The Royal Society 2011 writes:

“The brain is constantly changing and everything we do changes our brain…the brain has extraordinary adaptability, sometimes referred to as ‘neuroplasticity’”

The report goes on to explain that this is due to the processes that strengthen synapses and the effect is present throughout life. Contrary to early ideas of brain development we now know that the brain can adapt, change and therefore learn throughout life even into old age (OECD, 2008). Throughout life new synapses grow and are pruned but this process of pruning and growth is most prevalent at certain sensitive periods, from early childhood to late teens and early twenties. Individual experiences and environments shape individual brains (Royal Society, 2011).

While Individuals show differences in the structure of their brains this does not mean that there is evidence for individual learning styles of preferences. Due to the massive interconnectivity within the brain between individual neurons and between brain modules we know that information is processed across a wide variety of areas of the brain and that these areas are overlapping and interlinked. The ideas of learning styles –that learners learn exclusively through one sensory modality are false (Kratzig & Arbuthnott 2006). For example the areas of the brain that process speech overlap with those that process movement. The idea that an individual processes visual information in isolation from any other sense is another example of a neuromyth (Geake, 2009). In fact the interconnectedness of different sensory areas within the brain supports the notion of multisensory teaching i.e. approaching subject matter and skills through a variety of sensory inputs as this will enable more robust networks of neurones to form in the same manner as may be expected from repetition.

Geake (2009) defines the purpose of education as enabling the individual to gain transferable life skills from a variety of contexts. He also points out that learning in the form of memory formation of skills and concepts requires directed attention from working memory i.e. the engagement of the prefrontal cortex and the areas associated with working memory. Evidence shows that learners need to be guided. The brain can just as easily learn incorrect skills and content, but unlearning them is difficult because it requires the pruning of connections in the brain. Thus there are implications for inquiry based teaching methods and the idea that gifted students are able to teach themselves. Adult guidance and encouragement along with appropriate intellectual challenges should therefore be a central strategy for schools (Geake, 2009, Krishner et al., 2006).

Geake (2009) highlights the need for repetition within the learning environment of an individual. Repetition over time reinforces synaptic connections and allows the effective transference into long term memory. He illustrates this argument with the example of learning music. Hours of practice of the correct finger movements on an instrument allow the motor cortex to develop the neural networks that control the movement sequences. He does not advocate repetition in the sense of drilling exercises but suggests that spiral curriculums where individuals meet related concepts throughout their school experience, each time at a deeper and deeper level, along with lower pupil rations and immediate feedback from assessment to correct errors in processing would be beneficial for learners.

Educational neuroscience has also highlighted the interdependence of intellectual and physical wellbeing and much work has highlighted the importance of emotional wellbeing for learning (OECD, 2008). We now know how stress can inhibit learning because the centres of the brain that deal with emotion affectively inhibit the areas that help to regulate activity across the brain and are used in learning.

Conclusion

Modern theories of learning build firmly upon constructivist ideas (Samuels, 2009), but precisely because there is such a plethora of modern learning theories means that they cannot all be right (Geake, 2009).

Gardner’s (1983 & 1999) theory of multiple intelligences, a retelling of Plato’s ideal curriculum, is one such educational theory that must be qualified. It has been widely cited in educational policies and led to many misinterpretations such as labelling all children in a school as gifted by definition Geake (2009). Howard-Jones (2014) and Waterhouse (2006) argue that there is no neural evidence to support the idea of multiple intelligences but that there is evidence to suggest that there is a general cognitive ability underpinning all the possible dimensions of intelligence.

While massive differences exist in brain structure, the interconnectivity of the brain does point to a single underlying intelligence factor. Intelligence does have a genetic and environmental component in the same way that an individual heights do. Genetically, intelligence is brought about through the interaction between many genes; each of which have an individually small effect. The environment also has a role to play in unlocking the brains potential as diet, toxins and social interactions all up-regulate or down-regulate the effects of genes. A good social educational environment will enable an individual brain to reach it full intelligence potential (Geake 2009). 

At this stage educational neuroscience may not have the resolution to inform specifically about many aspects of classroom pedagogy (e.g. in science teaching) or classroom contexts but it is able to inform us about generalities that may inform curriculum planning on a whole school and regional basis. E.g. sleep patterns and gender differences, developmental differences, as well as serving to identify the psychological theories that may be most robust.

Obviously if we were to remove an individual’s brain we would soon find that they had lost the ability to learn altogether! Therefore is it unreasonable to be able to expect the workings of the mind to be understood through a deeper understanding of the brain?

The beauty of educational neuroscience is in its potential ability to underpin and constrain psychological theories of learning. Like Higgs with his Boson and the experimental physicists that validated its existence, educators are on the cusp of not only being able to identify a psychological intervention that works but also able to explain why it works, thanks to the evidence derived from educational neuroscience. To enable this we need better communication between the education and neuroscience communities.

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